Dados do Trabalhos de Conclusão

UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS
ZOOTECNIA (32001010029P9)
EFICIÊNCIA ALIMENTAR E PARÂMETROS PRODUTIVOS EM BEZERRA F1 HOLANDÊS X GIR
JULIANA MERGH LEAO
TESE
05/01/2018

Os objetivos foram avaliar se há divergência fenotípica para a eficiência alimentar (EA) na fase de aleitamento, se a EA tem correlação com produção de calor (PC) mensurada pelos métodos de máscara facial (MF) ou termografia infravermelha (TIV) e se estes métodos são aplicáveis em animais em aleitamento. Bezerras F1 Holandês x Gir (n = 36, PN=32,4 ± 6,6 kg) entre a 4ª e 12ª semanas de idade foram classificados em grupos de consumo alimentar residual (CAR) e ganho de peso residual (GPR): alta eficiência (AE, CAR, n = 10 e GPR, n = 9) e baixa eficiência (BE, CAR, n = 10 e GPR, n = 8). A dieta consistiu em leite integral (6 L /d), dieta sólida (95% de concentrado e 5% de feno Tifton 85 picado) e água a vontade. O crescimento e a ingestão de dieta foram monitorados semanal e diariamente, respectivamente. Consumo de O2 (cO2), produção de CO2 (pCO2) e CH4 (pCH4) foram obtidas por MF aos 45 ± 5 dias de idade e a PC foi estimada. As temperaturas máximas foram medidas por TIV aos 62 ± 7 d de idade. Amostras de sangue foram analisadas para glicose, insulina e β-hidroxibutirato (BHBA) e ruminais para pH, ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV), acético, butírico e propiônico, coletadas na 12ª semana de idade. Foi usado delineamento inteiramente casualizado e os dados foram analisados por ANOVA e suas correlações com médias comparadas por teste de Fisher. Houve divergência fenotípica para CAR e GPR. Bezerras AE e BE apresentaram CAR. Em geral, as estimativas de correlação entre os parâmetros sanguíneos, ruminais e morfométricos foram fracas, e sugerem que é improvável que isoladas, sejam úteis na identificação precoce de animais mais eficientes para índices de EA nesta fase.

calorimetria, desempenho, termografia
The aims of this study were to assess if there is phenotypical divergence for feed efficiency (FE) during the preweaning phase, if FE is correlated with heat production (HP) measured by the face mask method or by surface skin temperature via thermography, and whether these methods are applicable to preweaned calves it was also evaluated feed efficiency indexes and its effects on body measurements, blood and ruminal metabolites. Holstein x Gyr heifer calves (n = 36, birth BW = 32.4 ± 6.6 kg) enrolled between 4th and 12th w of age were classified into two residual feed intake (RFI) and residual growth (RG) groups: high efficiency (HE; RFI, n = 10; and RG, n = 9), and low efficiency (LE; RFI , n = 10; and RG, n = 8). Calves were fed milk (6 L/d) and solid feed (95% starter and 5% chopped Tifton 85 hay, as-fed). Growth were monitored weekly and feed intake (milk and solid feed) daily, during the whole period. Gas exchanges (O2 consumption and production of CO2 and CH4) were obtained using a face mask at 45 ± 5 d of age and HP was estimated. Maximum temperatures were measured at 7 sites with an infrared camera at 62 ± 7 d of age. Blood samples were collected on 12th w and analyzed for glucose, insulin and BHBA. Rumen samples collected on the same day and analyzed for pH, Total volatile fatty acids (VFA), acetic, butyric, and propionic. A completely randomized design was used, data were analyzed using ANOVA and correlations. Means were compared using Fisher’s test. There was divergence in RFI and RG. Respectively, HE and LE calves had RFI of -0.14 kg/d and 0.13 kg/d, and RG of 0.05 kg/d and -0.07 kg/d. Dry matter intake (DMI) was 15% lower in HE-RFI compared with LE-RFI, but there were no differences in average daily weight gain (ADG). Within the RG test, there were no differences in DMI or ADG. HE-RFI calves consumed less O2 (L/d) and produced less CO2 (L/d). Heart rate and HP were lower for HE-RFI calves compared with LE-RFI. RFI was correlated with HP (r = 0.48), O2 consumption (r = 0.48), CO2 production (r = 0.48), and heart rate (r = 0.40). There were no differences in HP and gas exchanges between RG groups. Methane production was null in both groups. Eye temperature measured by thermography was 0.5°C greater in HE-RG than LE-RG calves. Differences in skin temperature between HE and LE calves were not observed at the other sites. There were no significant differences between the RFI and RG classes for ruminal pH, ruminal NH3N concentration, proportion of VFA and molar proportions of propionic and acetic acids. For butyric acid no differences were found between RFI groups but tended to be higher in HE residual gain groups. No differences in glucose,insulin and insulin to glucose between the groups were found. For β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and glucose to insulin no differences exist in RFI groups but tended to be higher in HE residual gain animals. There were also no significant differences between the RFI classes for growth characteristics, except for inicial hip width for RFI group and variation of withers high for RG group (P< 0.05). These results support the hypothesis that calves are divergent for RFI, RG and FE during preweaning and divergence tests are applicable during this phase. The face mask method described here is a useful tool for estimating differences in HP among phenotypically divergent RFI calves. Eye temperature measured by IRT may have potential to screen phenotypically divergent RG calves. Overall, the correlation coefficient estimates between the potential blood markers and measurements of rumen and morphometric traits were weak and generally not different from zero. This suggests that it is unlikely that measurement of these metabolic indicators, per se, will be useful in the early identification of feed efficient animals during preweaning phase.
calorimetry, performance, thermography
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PORTUGUES
UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE MINAS GERAIS
O trabalho possui divulgação autorizada

Contexto

PRODUCAO ANIMAL
AVALIAÇÃO E/OU SIMULAÇÃO DE SISTEMAS DE PRODUÇÃO E REPRODUÇÃO DE ANIMAIS DE INTERESSE ZOOTÉCNICO
EFICIÊNCIA ALIMENTAR E PARÂMETROS PRODUTIVOS EM BEZERRAS F1 HOLADÊS X GIR

Banca Examinadora

SANDRA GESTEIRA COELHO
DOCENTE - PERMANENTE
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Nome Categoria
RICARDO REIS E SILVA Docente - COLABORADOR
BOLIVAR NOBREGA DE FARIA Participante Externo
HELTON MATTANA SATURNINO Docente - COLABORADOR
JULIANA APARECIDA MELLO LIMA Participante Externo

Financiadores

Financiador - Programa Fomento Número de Meses
FUNDACAO DE AMPARO A PESQUISA DO ESTADO DE MINAS GERAIS - Programa de Apoio à Pós-Graduação 48

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